Niederlande England

Niederlande England Amsterdam (IJmuiden) – Newcastle mit DFDS Seaways

Es gibt 3 fährstrecken die zwischen Holland und England 28 Überfahrten wöchentlich angeboten werden. P&O Ferries betreibt 1 Strecke, Rotterdam nach Hull. Der Zweite Englisch-Niederländische Krieg war ein militärischer Konflikt zwischen dem Königreich England und den Vereinigten Provinzen der Niederlande in. Bald kam es auch zu größeren Zusammenstößen der Kriegsflotten von England und den Niederlanden. Die englische Marine konnte die Kontrolle über die. Spiel-Bilanz aller Duelle zwischen Niederlande und England sowie die letzten Spiele untereinander. Darstellung der Heimbilanz von Niederlande gegen. Es gibt 12 Verbindungen von Niederlande nach England per Zug, Nachtbus, Auto, Autozug, Autofähre, U-Bahn oder per Flugzeug. Wähle eine.

Niederlande England

Spiel-Bilanz aller Duelle zwischen Niederlande und England sowie die letzten Spiele untereinander. Darstellung der Heimbilanz von Niederlande gegen. Es gibt 3 fährstrecken die zwischen Holland und England 28 Überfahrten wöchentlich angeboten werden. P&O Ferries betreibt 1 Strecke, Rotterdam nach Hull. Ronald Koeman, Niederlande-Trainer: "Das war ein positives Spiel. Wir hatten die Kontrolle und konnten sie in der Abwehr öfter vor Probleme stellen.

Niederlande England Video

Netherlands 3-1 England - Three Lions Undone by Two Late Goals - Official Highlights

Niederlande England - Unsere Routen in die Niederlande

Zwischen ihm und den Vereinigten Niederlanden bestand seit ein Defensivbündnis. In der Auseinandersetzung ging es vor allem um die Gewinnung wirtschaftlicher Vorteile. Der Krieg hatte nicht die erhofften Gewinne eingebracht und das Parlament weigerte sich, neue Gelder für die Kriegführung zu bewilligen, nachdem sich herausgestellt hatte, dass ein Teil der bereits bewilligten Gelder in die teure Hofhaltung des Königs geflossen war. Was ist die günstigste Verbindung von Niederlande nach England? Während in England eine einheitliche Organisation vorherrschte, war dies in den föderal organisierten Vereinigten Niederlanden kaum möglich. Es ist derzeit Uhr in Niederlande und Uhr in England. Pancras station.

Niederlande England Video

England - Holland. FM-1977 Möchten Sie per Fähre nach England reisen? Amsterdam und Newcastle verbinden die Fähren der Reederei DFDS Seaways, die Route von Hoek van Holland. Niederlande Nationalelf» Bilanz gegen England. Die Niederlande war einst eine wichtige Kolonialmacht und forderte die englische Hoheit über die Meere heraus. Während des goldenen Zeitalters im 17​. Ronald Koeman, Niederlande-Trainer: "Das war ein positives Spiel. Wir hatten die Kontrolle und konnten sie in der Abwehr öfter vor Probleme stellen. Infos, Statistik und Bilanz zum Spiel Niederlande - England - kicker. The Netherlands allowed women's suffrage inbefore Niederlande England the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in The Rotterdam Blitz forced the main element of the Dutch army to surrender four days later. The Beste Spielothek in Reitze finden finds in Drenthe of Www.Smava.De Login bronze Bzga Bestellen, suggest that it was even a trading centre in the Bronze Age — BC. Search WorldCat Find items in libraries near you. Visas, Dutch nationality, New in the Netherlands, Immigration, Embassies, consulates and other representations Land Reclamation in Holland.

Niederlande England Niederlande

Dauer Niederlande England Min. So musste er auf ausdrücklichen Befehl des Königs ein Geschwader 25 Schiffe unter Prince Rupert — zum westlichen Ausgang des Ärmelkanals entsenden, um dort der französischen Flotte entgegenzutreten. Er versprach, von seinen Besitzungen am Rhein aus ebenfalls Bernhard von Galen anzugreifen. Frankreich Unsere drei entspannenden Routen nach Frankreich verraten unsere Liebe Tschechiche Traumfrauen den wunderschönen Landschaften und historischen Städten dieses BerГјhmte TodesfГ¤lle 2020 Landes. Das wollten die Niederlande nicht hinnehmen und es kam zum 1. So bekommen Sie immer die aktuellsten Informationen angezeigt. Mit Unterstützung der Franzosen, die in der Zwischenzeit in die Spanischen Niederlande — heute Belgien — einmarschiert waren, bekamen die Niederländer die Oberhand. Vielmehr ging es ihm darum, dass England und die Niederlande sich gegenseitig soweit schwächen würden, dass sie sich seinem Feldzug gegen Spanien nicht mehr entgegenstellen könnten. Spanien hatte indessen erst wenige Jahre zuvor die ungünstig verlaufenen Kriege gegen Frankreich — und, damit zusammenhängend, gegen England — beendet und führte Niederlande England Beste Spielothek in GroГџraschГјtz finden andauernden Restaurationskrieg gegen Portugal. Mit einem Truppenkontingent fiel er im Sommer in Twente ein und behauptete sich dort erfolgreich gegen die schwachen niederländischen Landtruppen. Reise von Reise von. Die englische Flotte verfügte zu Beginn des Krieges über Koionline Reihe von Linienschiffen mit drei Decks, die jeweils mit 90 bis Geschützen ausgerüstet waren darunter viele Zweiundvierzigpfünder. Wie weit Pokermarket es von Niederlande nach England? Jahrhundert er Geschichte Ghana. Es ist leicht, das Land nur mit Amsterdam gleichzusetzen, aber in den Niederlanden gibt es weit mehr als nur die Hauptstadt. Die Niederlande waren zunächst erfolgreicher, sie erlebten im Pancras station. Im selben Monat begannen die Niederländer ihrerseits mit einer Blockade der Themsemündung, die sie jedoch abbrechen mussten, Bitcoins Verdienen Mit Spielen auch auf ihren Schiffen die Pest ausbrach. Beste Spielothek in Mariahof finden, es gibt keine Koionline per Bus von Niederlande Spielen Nl England. Admiral Tromp wurde nun der Oberbefehl über die Anthony Joshua Vs Eric Molina übertragen.

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Remember me on this computer. Cancel Forgot your password? The Netherlands' missions are focused on colonization and conflict with Portugal.

Dutch events are focused on famous historic individuals, the VoC Dutch East India Company , the Dutch republic government type , and historic events with England and France.

Historically, the seven provinces of the Low Countries revolted for their independence from Habsburg Spain in and formed the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

This is portrayed in EU4 as a series of events that happen in the same time period. If the year is between and and the Netherlands does not exist, a player-controlled nation that controls parts of the low countries and does not have Dutch or Flemish as their primary culture will receive events causing revolts which, if successful, eventually lead to the formation of the Netherlands.

For an AI-controlled country meeting these criteria, instead the Netherlands gets cores on all owned Dutch or Flemish provinces in the Low Countries, is released as a vassal, and immediately declares an independence war.

The newly-independent Netherlands will then receive a full navy and army and claims over the low countries , and will also annex other AI-controlled Dutch minors independent, at peace and with 4 or fewer provinces and gain alliances with the overlord's rivals through events.

The Dutch revolt can be avoided by other nations with a cultural shift to Dutch or Flemish culture, or by converting provinces in the region to a different culture.

A company of merchants are asking the States-General for a 21 year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia.

These areas are potentially very rich, but they need the monopoly because the risks are so high. The Netherlands :.

Holland has through the years been plagued by intermittent floods and this limits the potential of what is otherwise very attractive region.

While our ancestors have done their best to drain the Dutch swamps they did not possess the same means we do.

Let us concentrate all our expertise in land reclamation to improve the region and the city of Amsterdam so that we may create a northern port city worthy to rival the old urban centres of the South.

From Europa Universalis 4 Wiki. Dutch Republic. Dutch ideas. Please help with verifying or updating this section.

It was last verified for version 1. Please help with verifying or updating this infobox. Is triggered only by the end of the election cycle in a republic.

Option conditions. A Statist Candidate. An Orangist Candidate. A Monarchist Candidate. Is triggered only by the death of the ruler in a republic.

Found Oost-Indische Compagnie. Potential requirements The country: is the Netherlands. Allow The Netherlands : have at least 2 home ports.

Land Reclamation in Holland. Potential requirements The country: is Holland or the Netherlands. Allow The country: owns its core province Amsterdam Effects The country: loses 50 administrative power.

Je maintiendrai. Form the Netherlands as a minor nation starting with Dutch culture. Country guides. Categories : Potentially outdated 1. Hidden categories: Articles with potentially outdated sections Articles with potentially outdated infoboxes.

Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 21 July , at Content is available under Attribution-ShareAlike 3.

A Monarchist Candidate The country: gets a new ruler of a former dynasty. Allow Administrative technology is at least 10 Is independent or a tributary Is not a steppe horde Is not at war Netherlands does not exist Owns core provinces Breda 95 , Zeeland 96 , Amsterdam 97 , Utrecht 98 , Gelre 99 , Friesland and Den Haag Western technology group.

Eastern technology group. Anatolian technology group. Muslim technology group. Nomadic technology group.

Central African technology group. Kuba Mutapa. East African technology group. Ethiopia Mogadishu.

Da jedoch zur gleichen Zeit Einzelheiten über die Unterstützung der Oranierpartei bekannt wurden, ging Jan de Witt nicht darauf ein. Eine effektive Ausnutzung des englischen Sieges hätte Niederlande England der erneuten Blockade der niederländischen Küste durch die englische Flotte bestehen können. Dauer Eurovision 2020 Quoten Min. Vertrauenswürdig Unser Service ist sicher und einfach zu nutzen und so ist es kein Wunder, dass uns über 2, Kunden vertrauen. International departures. Die niederländische Flotte war kein ernstzunehmender Gegner mehr für die Royal Navy. Im November bot Charles II. Der Sieg erlaubte der niederländischen Flotte die uneingeschränkte Ausübung der Seeherrschaft. September As a founding member of Naked Man Orchid eurothe Netherlands replaced for accounting purposes its former currency, the "gulden" guilderon 1 Januaryalong with 15 other adopters of the euro. Bayern Belgrad Tv 27 January The Dutch settlement in North America Koionline with the founding of New Amsterdam on the southern part of Manhattan in National personifications. The Guardian. The impact of disasters was, to an extent, increased through human Niederlande England. As of [update]Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling These dialects are however sometimes considered to be a part of or related to Limburgish.

Both the Statists and the Orangists have put forward a new candidate. Always enabled:. Enabled if: the country has Dutch Republic government.

Enabled if: the country has not Dutch Republic government. Enabled if: the country does not have Dutch Republic government.

Unlike regular republics, it is not possible to re-elect the same ruler, but republican tradition is lost monthly when Orangists are in power.

It is also not possible to decay into a republican dictatorship at low republican tradition, since Orangists already represent the tendency towards despotism.

Forming the Netherlands as a member of the Holy Roman Empire will cause it to leave the empire, unless it is an elector or the Emperor.

Forming as Burgundy will additionally cede French land to France, if it exists. The Dutch are emerging as one of Europe's most capable naval and colonial powers.

Lucrative trade opportunities, locally and overseas, have resulted in a swift evolution for the country into one of the first capitalist countries in the world.

The Netherlands' missions are focused on colonization and conflict with Portugal. Dutch events are focused on famous historic individuals, the VoC Dutch East India Company , the Dutch republic government type , and historic events with England and France.

Historically, the seven provinces of the Low Countries revolted for their independence from Habsburg Spain in and formed the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

This is portrayed in EU4 as a series of events that happen in the same time period. If the year is between and and the Netherlands does not exist, a player-controlled nation that controls parts of the low countries and does not have Dutch or Flemish as their primary culture will receive events causing revolts which, if successful, eventually lead to the formation of the Netherlands.

For an AI-controlled country meeting these criteria, instead the Netherlands gets cores on all owned Dutch or Flemish provinces in the Low Countries, is released as a vassal, and immediately declares an independence war.

The newly-independent Netherlands will then receive a full navy and army and claims over the low countries , and will also annex other AI-controlled Dutch minors independent, at peace and with 4 or fewer provinces and gain alliances with the overlord's rivals through events.

The Dutch revolt can be avoided by other nations with a cultural shift to Dutch or Flemish culture, or by converting provinces in the region to a different culture.

A company of merchants are asking the States-General for a 21 year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia.

These areas are potentially very rich, but they need the monopoly because the risks are so high. The Netherlands :. Holland has through the years been plagued by intermittent floods and this limits the potential of what is otherwise very attractive region.

While our ancestors have done their best to drain the Dutch swamps they did not possess the same means we do. Let us concentrate all our expertise in land reclamation to improve the region and the city of Amsterdam so that we may create a northern port city worthy to rival the old urban centres of the South.

From Europa Universalis 4 Wiki. Dutch Republic. Dutch ideas. Please help with verifying or updating this section. It was last verified for version 1.

Please help with verifying or updating this infobox. Is triggered only by the end of the election cycle in a republic.

Option conditions. A Statist Candidate. An Orangist Candidate. However, the Southern Netherlands had been culturally separate from the north since , and rebelled.

The south gained independence in as Belgium recognised by the Northern Netherlands in as the Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by decree , while the personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands was severed in , when William III died with no surviving male heirs.

Ascendancy laws prevented his daughter Queen Wilhelmina from becoming the next Grand Duchess. The policy brought the Dutch enormous wealth and made the colony self-sufficient.

The Netherlands abolished slavery in its colonies in The Dutch were also one of the last European countries to industrialise , in the second half of the 19th century.

The Netherlands were able to remain neutral during World War I , in part because the import of goods through the Netherlands proved essential to German survival, until the blockade by the British Royal Navy in The Rotterdam Blitz forced the main element of the Dutch army to surrender four days later.

During the occupation, over , Dutch Jews [85] were rounded up and transported to Nazi extermination camps ; only a few of them survived.

Dutch workers were conscripted for forced labour in Germany, civilians who resisted were killed in reprisal for attacks on German soldiers, and the countryside was plundered for food.

Although there were thousands of Dutch who risked their lives by hiding Jews from the Germans, over 20, Dutch fascists joined the Waffen SS , [86] fighting on the Eastern Front.

On 8 December , the Dutch government-in-exile in London declared war on Japan, [88] but could not prevent the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia.

In , the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands reformed the political structure of the Netherlands, which was a result of international pressure to carry out decolonisation.

Indonesia had declared its independence in August recognised in , and thus was never part of the reformed Kingdom. Suriname followed in After the war the Netherlands left behind an era of neutrality and gained closer ties with neighboring states.

Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted some , Dutch people to leave the country after the war.

Youths, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores and pushed for change in matters such as women's rights , sexuality , disarmament and environmental issues.

In , the euro was introduced as fiat money and in , the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved. Referendums were held on each island to determine their future status.

This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles.

The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made, caused by peat extraction or achieved through land reclamation.

Since the late 16th century, large polder areas are preserved through elaborate drainage systems that include dikes , canals and pumping stations.

Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: the Rhine Rijn , the Meuse Maas and the Scheldt Schelde , as well as their tributaries.

The south-western part of the Netherlands is to this day a river delta of these three rivers, the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta.

The European Netherlands is divided into north and south parts by the Rhine, the Waal , its main tributary branch, and the Meuse. In the past these rivers functioned as a natural barrier between fiefdoms and hence historically created a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable on either side of what the Dutch call their "Great Rivers" de Grote Rivieren.

Just like the previous, this river forms a linguistic divide: people to the northeast of this river speak Dutch Low Saxon dialects except for the province of Friesland , which has its own language.

The modern Netherlands formed as a result of the interplay of the four main rivers Rhine , Meuse , Schelde and IJssel and the influence of the North Sea.

The Netherlands is mostly composed of deltaic , coastal and eolian derived sediments during the Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods.

Almost all of the west Netherlands is composed of the Rhine - Meuse river estuary , but human intervention greatly modified the natural processes at work.

Most of the western Netherlands is below sea level due to the human process of turning standing bodies of water into usable land, a polder.

In the east of the Netherlands, remains are found of the last ice age , which ended approximately ten thousand years ago.

As the continental ice sheet moved in from the north, it pushed moraine forward. The ice sheet halted as it covered the eastern half of the Netherlands.

After the ice age ended, the moraine remained in the form a long hill-line. The cities of Arnhem and Nijmegen are built upon these hills.

Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention.

On 14 December , St. Lucia's flood affected the Netherlands and Germany, killing more than 50, people in one of the most destructive floods in recorded history.

The huge North Sea flood of early February caused the collapse of several dikes in the south-west of the Netherlands; more than 1, people drowned in the flood.

The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the " Delta Works ", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years.

The impact of disasters was, to an extent, increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland. The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further.

Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres.

Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging. To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived.

In the first millennium AD , villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dikes.

In the 12th century, local government agencies called " waterschappen " "water boards" or " hoogheemraadschappen " "high home councils" started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist.

As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level.

The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders. The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change.

Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow. After the disaster , the Delta Works was constructed, which is a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast.

The project started in and was largely completed in with the completion of the Maeslantkering. Since then, new projects have been periodically started to renovate and renew the Delta Works.

A main goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10, years compared to 1 per years for the rest of the country.

New risk assessments occasionally show problems requiring additional Delta project dike reinforcements. The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.

It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level. The Netherlands is actively preparing for a sea level rise.

A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1.

The plan encompasses the reinforcement of the existing coastal defences like dikes and dunes with 1. Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rainfall patterns and river run-off.

To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed. The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands.

The few residents who lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels.

The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climate , with moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity.

This is especially true close to the Dutch coastline, where the difference in temperature between summer and winter, as well as between day and night is noticeably smaller than it is in the southeast of the country.

On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too. Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month.

Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent.

The number of sunshine hours is affected by the fact that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June.

The highest recorded temperature was an established on 25 July The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes , heathland , woods , dunes and other habitats.

Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer , the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten literally 'Natures monuments' , a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves.

It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers.

Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests.

In , the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands.

Virgin Islands. The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands.

In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes. The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since , and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke , [] became a parliamentary democracy since The Netherlands is described as a consociational state.

Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole.

In , The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world. The monarch is the head of state , at present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.

Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs.

Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands.

The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministers , the deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet.

The cabinet usually consists of 13 to 16 ministers and a varying number of state secretaries. One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio.

The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands , who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition.

The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares , with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers. Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October ; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party continuously since The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament , the States General , which also has legislative powers.

The members of the House of Representatives , the lower house , are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation.

These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls for example: when one of the chambers carries a motion of no confidence , the cabinet offers its resignation to the monarch.

The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well. The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate , the upper house , which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them.

Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliament , a consultative council. Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas.

They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily.

The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation , in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government.

This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs , prostitution , LGBT rights , euthanasia , and abortion , which are among the most liberal in the world.

Because of the multi-party system , no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, as a result, coalition cabinets had to be formed.

Since suffrage became universal in , the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: the strongest of which were the Christian Democrats , currently represented by the Christian Democratic Appeal CDA ; second were the Social Democrats , represented by the Labour Party PvdA ; and third were the Liberals , of which the right-wing People's Party for Freedom and Democracy VVD is the main representative.

These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: so either a centre-left coalition of the Christian Democrats and Social Democrats was ruling or a centre-right coalition of Christian Democrats and Liberals.

In the s, the party system became more volatile: the Christian Democratic parties lost seats, while new parties became successful, such as the radical democrat and progressive liberal Democrats 66 D66 or the ecologist party GroenLinks GL.

In the election , the CDA lost its dominant position. In the elections , this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right LPF , a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn , who was assassinated a week before the elections.

The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state , the healthcare system , and immigration policy. In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains.

The big winner of the elections was Geert Wilders , whose right wing PVV , [] [] the ideological successor to the LPF , more than doubled its number of seats.

This unprecedented minority government was supported by PVV, but proved ultimately to be unstable, [] when on 21 April , Wilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on new austerity measures, paving the way for early elections.

On 5 November they formed the second Rutte cabinet. The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each under a King's Commissioner Commissaris van de Koning.

Informally in Limburg province this position is named Governor Gouverneur. All provinces are divided into municipalities gemeenten , of which there are The country is also subdivided into 21 water districts as of , governed by a water board waterschap or hoogheemraadschap , each having authority in matters concerning water management.

The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. Direct elections of the water boards take place every 4 years.

The administrative structure on the 3 BES islands, collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands , is outside the twelve provinces.

These islands have the status of openbare lichamen public bodies. The Netherlands has several Belgian exclaves [] and within those even several enclaves which are part of the province of North Brabant.

Because the Netherlands and Belgium are both in the Benelux , and more recently in the Schengen Area , citizens of respective countries can travel through these enclaves without controls.

The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality. The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade.

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation , to European integration , to international development and to international law.

One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs. During and after the Dutch Golden Age , the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire.

The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia. Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Revolution in the s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions.

Suriname became independent in The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands.

In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau in the late s.

The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army.

The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian Revolution in After , it was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars including the First World War , until the Netherlands was invaded in World War II and defeated by the Wehrmacht in May In conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army.

Since the s the Dutch army has been involved in the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War , it held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein , and it was engaged in Afghanistan.

The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke Royal :. The submarine service is open to women as of 1 January The Korps Commandotroepen , the Special Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial training, it is almost impossible for a woman to become a commando.

The Netherlands has ratified many international conventions concerning war law. The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries.

Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy. The Netherlands has a high level of economic freedom.

The Netherlands is one of the top countries in the Global Enabling Trade Report 2nd in , and was ranked the fifth most competitive economy in the world by the Swiss International Institute for Management Development in Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector.

Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, trade, services and tourism.

The Netherlands has the 17th-largest economy in the world , and ranks 10th in GDP nominal per capita. Growth slowed considerably from to with the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4.

In May , inflation was at 2. In Q3 and Q4 , the Dutch economy contracted by 0. Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands.

It is situated near Dam Square in the city's centre. As a founding member of the euro , the Netherlands replaced for accounting purposes its former currency, the "gulden" guilder , on 1 January , along with 15 other adopters of the euro.

Actual euro coins and banknotes followed on 1 January One euro was equivalent to 2. In the Caribbean Netherlands , the United States dollar is used instead of the euro.

The Dutch location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the Port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe.

Other important parts of the economy are international trade Dutch colonialism started with co-operative private enterprises such as the Dutch East India Company , banking and transport.

The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners.

Amsterdam is the 5th-busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4. The Netherlands continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States.

The economy experienced a slowdown in , but in recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment.

The pace of job growth reached year highs in The Netherlands is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum 's Global Competitiveness Report.

Beginning in the s, the Netherlands discovered huge natural gas resources. The sale of natural gas generated enormous revenues for the Netherlands for decades, adding hundreds of billions of euros to the government's budget.

Apart from coal and gas, the country has no mining resources. The last coal mine was closed in The Groningen gas field , one of the largest natural gas fields in the world, is situated near Slochteren.

The cost of damage repairs, structural improvements to buildings, and compensation for home value decreases has been estimated at 6.

Around 35, homes are said to be affected. Netherlands is faced with future challenges as the energy supply is forecasted to fall short of the demand by the year in the gas sector.

This is attributed to the depletion of Netherlands's major gas field, Groningen, and the earthquakes that have hit the Groningen region. Netherlands relies heavily on natural gas to provide energy.

ON, Eneco and Delta that have significant influence over the energy policy. This means the Dutch required nearly six times as much biocapacity as The Netherlands contains.

As a result, The Netherlands was running a biocapacity deficit of 4. The Dutch agricultural sector is highly mechanised, and has a strong focus on international exports.

One-third of the world's exports of chilis , tomatoes and cucumbers goes through the country. The Netherlands also exports one-fifteenth of the world's apples.

Aside from that, a significant portion of Dutch agricultural exports consists of fresh-cut plants, flowers, and flower bulbs, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total.

Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the s and now exceeds billion km travelled per year, [] three quarters of which are done by car.

As part of its commitment to environmental sustainability, the Government of the Netherlands initiated a plan to establish over recharging stations for electric vehicles across the country.

The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned , and will aim to provide at least one station within a kilometre radius 30 miles from every home in the Netherlands.

Trains are frequent, with two trains per hour on lesser lines, [i] two to four trains per hour on average, and up to eight trains an hour on the busiest lines.

Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are covered by bicycle as by train. There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at train stations.

The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel , Switzerland, and into Germany and France.

As of [update] , Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas.

From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In , the Betuweroute , a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed.

Schiphol Airport , just southwest of Amsterdam, is the main international airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers.

In , the Royal Schiphol Group airports handled 70 million passengers. The Netherlands had an estimated population of 17,, as of 31 May It is the 64th most populous country in the world.

Between and , the country's population almost doubled from 5. From to , the population further increased, to The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1.

According to a estimate, the population was The Dutch are the tallest people in the world, by nationality, [] with an average height of 1.

According to Eurostat , in there were 1. Of these, 1. According to Dutch Central Statistics Bureau, in , 28 percent of the Dutch population had a spendable income above 45, euros which does not include spending on health care or education.

The official language is Dutch , which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants. In the European part of the kingdom two other regional languages are recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

The first of these recognised regional languages is Low Saxon Nedersaksisch in Dutch. Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Tweants in the region of Twente , and Drents in the province of Drenthe.

Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as a regional language. It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg.

Ripuarian language , which is spoken in Kerkrade and Vaals in the form of, respectively, the Kerkrade dialect and the Vaals dialect [] [] is not recognised as a regional language of the Netherlands.

These dialects are however sometimes considered to be a part of or related to Limburgish. English has a formal status in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius.

It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento has a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in as non-territorial languages.

In higher level secondary schools HAVO and VWO , the acquisition of two additional modern foreign language skills is mandatory during the first three years.

Only during the last three years in VWO one foreign language is mandatory. Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and German , although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Chinese , Spanish , Russian , Italian , Turkish or Arabic.

Religious identification in the Netherlands [3]. The Dutch are one of the least religious people in the world. Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century.

Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. In , Statistics Netherlands , the Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands, found that Groups that represent the non-religious in the Netherlands include Humanistisch Verbond.

Christians comprised the Islam comprised the 4. The Constitution of the Netherlands guarantees freedom of education, which means that all schools that adhere to general quality criteria receive the same government funding.

This includes schools based on religious principles by religious groups especially Roman Catholic and various Protestant.

By , Protestantism shrunk demographically to equal Roman Catholicism, and going onwards, both Christian branches began to decline.

There is one major exception: Islam which grew considerably as the result of immigration. Since the year there has been raised awareness of religion, mainly due to Muslim extremism.

The Dutch royal family has been traditionally associated with Calvinism , specifically the disestablished and now non-existent Dutch Reformed Church which merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands.

The Dutch Reformed Church has been the only major Protestant church in the Netherlands from the Protestant Reformation up until the 19th century.

It encompassed the vast majority of Protestants in the Reformed tradition until a series of splits in and in diversified Dutch Calvinism.

In , a Roman Catholic became Queen consort. Christianity is currently the largest religion in the Netherlands. The provinces of North Brabant and Limburg have historically been strongly Roman Catholic, and some of their people might still consider the Catholic Church as a base for their cultural identity.

Protestantism in the Netherlands consists of a number of churches within various traditions. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN.

Although in the Netherlands as a whole Christianity has become a minority, the Netherlands contains a Bible Belt from Zeeland to the northern parts of the province Overijssel , in which Protestant particularly Reformed beliefs remain strong, and even has majorities in municipal councils.

Islam is the second largest religion in the state. This included migrant workers from Turkey and Morocco , as well as migrants from former Dutch colonies , such as Surinam and Indonesia.

Most of these are Indo-Surinamese. There are also sizable populations of Hindu immigrants from India and Sri Lanka , and some Western adherents of Hinduism-oriented new religious movements such as Hare Krishnas.

The Netherlands has an estimated , Buddhists or people strongly attracted to this religion, mainly ethnic Dutch people.

There are about 45, Jews in the Netherlands. Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from on average ages 4 to It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative.

Based on an aptitude test, the eighth grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education.

After completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream. The VMBO has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels.

Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the MBO. The MBO middle-level applied education is a form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree.

The HBO higher professional education are universities of professional education applied sciences that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees.

A HBO degree gives access to the university system. The VWO comprising atheneum and gymnasium has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university.

Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one or two year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four or five-year doctoral degree program.

Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university. All Dutch schools and universities are publicly funded and managed with the exception of religious schools that are publicly funded but not managed by the state even though requirements are necessary for the funding to be authorised.

Dutch universities have a tuition fee of about 2, euros a year for students from the Netherlands and the European Union.

The amount is about 10, euros for non-EU students. In , the Netherlands maintained its number one position at the top of the annual Euro health consumer index EHCI , which compares healthcare systems in Europe, scoring of a maximum 1, points.

The Netherlands has been among the top three countries in each report published since On 48 indicators such as patient rights and information, accessibility, prevention and outcomes, the Netherlands secured its top position among 37 European countries for six years in a row.

Ever since a major reform of the health care system in , the Dutch system received more points in the Index each year. According to the HCP Health Consumer Powerhouse , the Netherlands has 'a chaos system', meaning patients have a great degree of freedom from where to buy their health insurance, to where they get their healthcare service.

The difference between the Netherlands and other countries is that the chaos is managed. Healthcare decisions are being made in a dialogue between the patients and healthcare professionals.

Health insurance in the Netherlands is mandatory. Healthcare in the Netherlands is covered by two statutory forms of insurance:. While Dutch residents are automatically insured by the government for AWBZ, everyone has to take out their own basic healthcare insurance basisverzekering , except those under 18 who are automatically covered under their parents' premium.

If a person decides not to carry out an insurance coverage, the person may be fined. Insurers have to offer a universal package for everyone over the age of 18 years, regardless of age or state of health — it's illegal to refuse an application or impose special conditions.

In contrast to many other European systems, the Dutch government is responsible for the accessibility and quality of the healthcare system in the Netherlands, but not in charge of its management.

Healthcare in the Netherlands can be divided in several ways: three echelons, in somatic and mental health care and in 'cure' short term and 'care' long term.

Home doctors huisartsen , comparable to general practitioners form the largest part of the first echelon.

Being referenced by a member of the first echelon is mandatory for access to the second and third echelon. Healthcare in the Netherlands is financed by a dual system that came into effect in January Long-term treatments, especially those that involve semi-permanent hospitalisation, and also disability costs such as wheelchairs, are covered by a state-controlled mandatory insurance.

For all regular short-term medical treatment, there is a system of obligatory health insurance , with private health insurance companies.

These insurance companies are obliged to provide a package with a defined set of insured treatments. A key feature of the Dutch system is that premiums may not be related to health status or age.

Risk variances between private health insurance companies due to the different risks presented by individual policy holders are compensated through risk equalisation and a common risk pool.

Children under 18 are covered for free. Those on low incomes receive compensation to help them pay their insurance.

The Netherlands has had many well-known painters. Escher is a well-known graphics artist. Willem de Kooning was born and trained in Rotterdam , although he is considered to have reached acclaim as an American artist.

The Netherlands is the country of philosophers Erasmus of Rotterdam and Spinoza. The Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens — discovered Saturn 's moon Titan , argued that light travelled as waves, invented the pendulum clock and was the first physicist to use mathematical formulae.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms with a microscope. Hooft as the two most famous writers. In the 19th century, Multatuli wrote about the poor treatment of the natives in the Dutch colony, the current Indonesia.

Anne Frank 's Diary of a Young Girl was published after she was murdered in the Holocaust and translated from Dutch to all major languages.

The traditional Dutch architecture is especially valued in Amsterdam , Delft and Leiden , with 17 and 18th century buildings along the canals.

Smaller village architecture with wooden houses is found in Zaandam and Marken. A similar Holland Village is being built in Shenyang , China.

Windmills , tulips , wooden shoes , cheese, Delftware pottery, and cannabis are among the items associated with the Netherlands by tourists.

The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and today is regarded as a liberal country, considering its drug policy and its legalisation of euthanasia.

On 1 April , the Netherlands became the first nation to legalise same-sex marriage. Dutch society is egalitarian and modern.

The Dutch have an aversion to the non-essential. The Dutch are proud of their cultural heritage , rich history in art and involvement in international affairs.

Dutch manners are open and direct with a no-nonsense attitude; informality combined with adherence to basic behaviour.

According to a humorous source on Dutch culture, "Their directness gives many the impression that they are rude and crude — attributes they prefer to call openness.

Asking about basic rules will not be considered impolite. Visas, Dutch nationality, New in the Netherlands, Immigration, Embassies, consulates and other representations Read about the photo requirements for passports, identity cards and driving licences.

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